In writing Mistress of the Sun and the Josephine B. Trilogy, I forged fiction from fact. It's in the research that the story begins to emerge.
In the decade that it took to write the Josephine B. Trilogy, and the years following to learn about the Court of the Sun King, I was constantly researching, constantly searching for answers.
I eventually evolved a method. I needed a way of organizing this mountain of material (without being buried under it).
Books and other resources
I read broadly: biographies, but mostly journals and memoirs, which I love. The Internet has made it possible to find relatively obscure out-of-print books from used bookstores all over the world. (I mainly use Abe Books, Book Finder, and Tricolor Books.)
Too, a number of texts are available on-line. I also make extensive use of the inter-library loan system and university libraries. I consult with historians, and again, the Internet has greatly facilitated access to experts. A great deal can be learned from interest groups, as well.
I've learned to be methodical in keeping track of information. Each book and URL is assigned a number and listed on a master bibliography. I record details of clothing, customs, food and so forth on individual fact sheets. For each reference, I note the book and page number so that I can check a fact when necessary.
I record events on a massive timeline*, which becomes the backbone of the story. For the Josephine B. Trilogy, I recorded what was happening not only to Josephine, but what was happening in the lives of her family members and friends, as well as in her community and beyond. At a glance, I'm able to see what happened on any single day. The timeline also allows me to see where historians differ and gives me a basis for judging their claims.
Each character is assigned a file, as well (originally paper, but now on computer). As I come across a reference in a text, I copy it into the character's file. It's interesting when accounts vary: he's ugly, he's handsome, etc.
It is frustrating writing about a world one can never directly experience. One of the things that drives me in writing is an intense desire to find out what it was like in that world — what it felt like.
The closer I can get to the experience the better. In researching the Josephine B. Trilogy, I took lessons in 18th century dance, tried treatments Josephine might have taken at her spa.
To find out what it felt like to wear the fashions of the period, I acquired an historically-accurate copy of an 18th century gown. I had expected 18th century clothing to be uncomfortable, but in fact it is very relaxed, easy to move in. The Revolutionary period was liberating for men, but also, in many respects, for women—and one can see this in the changes in fashion.
It is essential to see the places I'm writing about. For the Josephine B. Trilogy, I travelled to France, Martinique, northern Italy and Germany seeking the places in which Josephine stayed. (Some were not easy to find.) I've been to the prison where she was kept, attended the church she went to as a child, seen where she was born, where she died. By going to the places Josephine lived, walking where she walked, looking out a window as she surely did, she begins to come alive.
From my journal, September 3, 1990, on my first visit to Paris:
"I long to see horses everywhere, the fine and grubby people. This is my place. The scale of the river is much grander than I had imagined. This corner where I sit: Josephine was here, Aunt Fanny was here—they all were here."
For the travelling reader:
A wealth of travel options are available for readers of Mistress of the Sun, which takes place in many of the most beautiful castles of the Loire Valley and Ile de France. (For details, see the map on the Mistress of the Sun page.)
For readers of the Josephine B. Trilogy, Malmaison has been beautifully restored. It's a day-trip from Paris. From Malmaison, one can walk to the church of Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul in the village of Rueil-Malmaison, to see Josephine's and Hortense's tombs. The Fondation Napoléon has set out an excellent travel itinerary for visiting Malmaison and other spots of interest in the area.
In Paris, I recommend a visit to the Carmes Convent, where Josephine and her first husband were kept prisoner during the Terror. When I was there, a guided tour was offered that took us deep into the crypts where skulls are on display in glass cases. In the reception area above, one could see the blood stains on the walls from the days of the Terror.
A visit to Plombieres-les-Bains, the spa Josephine frequented, is a delightful experience. It's still very much a simple mountain village, as it was in Josephine's day. The food was excellent, the rates more than reasonable, and, of course, the many and varied spa treatments were a delight. (For more on this, read my article, Mud Baths and Dusty Coffins: in Search of Josephine B.)
In Martinique, Josephine's homestead La Pagerie has been restored for tourists. In Trois-Islets, the church Josephine attended, the Eglise Notre-Dame-d-la-Délivrance, is on the central square.
My blog on researching the era of the Sun King
Heroine of a Golden Age
This article by Janice Kennedy gives an excellent overview of the research process in writing Mistress of the Sun.
The PBS miniseries on Napoleon
I was honoured to have been invited to be one of the "featured historians" for the PBS miniseries on Napoleon.
For further reading about Louise de la Vallière and the era of the Sun Court, please see my bibliography.
For further reading about Josephine and her world:
Bruce, Evangeline. Napoleon and Josephine; The Improbable Marriage. Scribner; New York; 1995. Beautifully written, refreshingly researched. If you read only one book, this is the one.
Cronin, Vincent. Napoleon. Collins; London; 1971. Although unobjective (decidedly pro-Napoleon), I recommend this book. It is very readable, gives wealth of captivating detail, and captures the spirit of both the man and the time.
Mossiker, Frances. More Than a Queen; the story of Josephine Bonaparte. Knopf; New York; 1971. Although this is a biography written for young adults, it is one of my favourites. Clear prose, beautiful illustrations, well-researched.
Oman, Carola. Napoleon's Viceroy; Eugne de Beauharnais. Funk and Wagnalls; New York; 1966. Well-researched, fair, well-written.
Schama, Simon. Citizens; A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Alfred A. Knopf; New York; 1989.
Novels set during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras:
Mantel, Hilary. A Place of Greater Safety. Penguin; London; 1992. Winner of a Book of the Year award. An amazing accomplishment.
Piercy, Marge. City of Darkness, City of Light. Fawcett Columbine; 1996. Historically accurate, a wonderful book. Piercy does not ignore the significant role of women in the Revolution.
Selinko, Annemarie. Désirée. William Morrow & Company; New York; 1953. The classic.
Simon Leys. The Death of Napoleon. Picador; 1991. A "what-if" senario, beautifully-written, poetic, spare. This award-winning novel is now a wonderful movie.
Winterson, Jeanette. The Passion. A poetic novel about Napoleon's chicken chef.
Sites and associations of interest:
The 17th century, and 17th-century France in particular, is a fascinating era, but there are few internet sites for the English-speaking reader. I've listed the best of these on Baroque Explorations, my blog on 17th century research.